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Convert PowerPoint Files to High-Resolution TIFFs

Caution: Do not add artwork to your PowerPoint slides by copying from another application and then pasting into PowerPoint. Your figures will be downsampled to screen resolution. Instead use Insert > Picture > From File.
Caution: Do not use File > Save as > TIFF. This will result in a low-resolution, poor-quality figure.

Windows 98, XP, Vista and PowerPoint 2003 or 2007:

Step I: Convert PowerPoint File to PDF
First, you need to edit your registry as detailed here: http://support.microsoft.com/default.aspx?scid=kb;en-us;827745. This is approved by Microsoft, so it’s completely safe to do. In step 8, the value you need to enter is 300.
Then, there are two possible ways to create PDFs from PowerPoint files: use the Adobe PDF menu in some versions of PowerPoint, or create a PDF via the Print command.
  1. Open your file in PowerPoint. From the Adobe PDF menu, select Change Conversion Settings. The PDFMaker Settings dialog displays.
  2. From the Conversion settings dropdown menu, select Press Quality. Uncheck View Adobe PDF result. Click OK.
  3. From the Adobe PDF menu, select Convert to Adobe PDF. You will be asked to save the PDF file to a location of your choosing.
  4. Click OK.
– OR -
  1. Open your file in PowerPoint.
  2. Select Print from the File dropdown menu.
  3. Select the Adobe PDF (or similar driver) in the Printer Name window.
  4. Click Properties. Change the Default Settings pull-down to Press Quality. Uncheck the "View Adobe PDF results" box if you don't want Acrobat to launch.
  5. Click OK, then click OK. Pick where the PDF will be created, and click Save. Note: If your PowerPoint file contains figures on multiple slides, print each slide to a separate PDF (if you do this, skip ahead to Step III). Alternately, you can create one PDF file and then use Adobe Acrobat to separate the figures/slides into individual files, as detailed in Step II.
Step II: Convert Multi-Page PDF File to Individual Files
  1. Using Adobe Acrobat Standard, open the PDF file that you created in Step 1. From the Document menu, select Pages and then Extract. The Extract Page dialog box displays.
  2. Enter the page numbers in the To and From fields and then select the Delete Pages checkbox. Checking this box will delete the page that you entered in the To and From fields from the PDF file.
  3. Click OK. The page that you specify in the previous step is now shown in Acrobat.
  4. From the File menu, select save and enter the file name (e.g., Figure 1) for the extracted page and then click OK.
  5. Repeat this process until a separate file is created for each figure/slide.
Step III: Convert Individual PDF Files to TIFFs
In Photoshop:
  1. File→Open the PDF. You will need to do this one page at a time. Make sure you're importing it at 300ppi, RGB.
  2. Use the Crop Tool (fifth from the top of the toolbar) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
  3. Layer→Flatten Image
  4. Image→Image Size. Uncheck the Resample Image checkbox. If the Width is over 17.35cm, type 17.35 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures). The Resolution will go up automatically as the Width decreases. If the resolution does not hit 300 when you make the Width 17.35, type 300 in Resolution and as long as Width doesn't go below 8.3cm, everything is fine. Also, the height cannot be more than 23.35. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
  5. File→Save As. Save as TIFF, Image Compression set to LZW, Pixel Order set to Interleaved, Byte Order set to IBM PC.
In GIMP:
  1. File→Open the PDF. You will need to do this one page at a time. Open pages as Images at 300ppi. Click Import.
  2. Use the Crop Tool (third row, second from the right, looks like a knife blade) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
  3. Image→Scale Image. Set the units of measurement, in the pull down menu next to Height, to millimeters. If the Width is over 173.5mm, type 173.5 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures) and hit Tab. The new Height of the figure will appear, scaled proportionately to the change in Width. The Width cannot be below 83.0mm, and the height cannot be more than 233.5mm. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
  4. File→Save As. Click the + sign next to "Select File Type (By Extension)". From the menu that appears, select TIFF. Click Save. Set Compression set to LZW. If you're prompted about layers in the file, select Flatten Image.
In Acrobat Pro:
  1. File→Open the PDF
  2. If necessary, go Document→Rotate Pages to rotate the document to a horizontal orientation.
  3. File→Save As. In the "Save as type" pull-down menu, select TIFF.
  4. Click the Settings button on the right-hand side of the Save As dialog box. In the top third, under "File Settings", both Grayscale and Color should be set to LZW. In the bottom third, "Conversion," set Colorspace to Color:RGB, and Resolution to 300ppi. Click OK. Click Save.
Note: PDFs converted to TIFFs in this manner should still be opened in Photoshop or GIMP to crop excess white space, and make sure the figure falls within our maximums and minimums.

Macintosh OS X and PowerPoint 2004:

Step I: Convert PowerPoint File to PNG
  1. Go to PowerPoint Preferences. Under the Save tab, at the bottom, set Advanced Resolution Settings to 1600 DPI.
  2. File → Save As. In the Format pull-down menu, select PNG. Save. PNG is the only format you can export in at a high resolution – all other formats save as 72ppi no matter what you set in Preferences.
Step II: Convert Individual PNG Files to TIFFs
In Photoshop:
  1. File→Open the PNG.
  2. Use the Crop Tool (fifth from the top of the toolbar) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
  3. Layer→Flatten Image
  4. Image→Image Size. Uncheck the Resample Image checkbox. If the Width is over 17.35cm, type 17.35 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures). The Resolution will go up automatically as the Width decreases. If the resolution does not hit 300 when you make the Width 17.35, type 300 in Resolution and as long as Width doesn't go below 8.3cm, everything is fine. Also, the height cannot be more than 23.35. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
  5. File→Save As. Save as TIFF, Image Compression set to LZW, Pixel Order set to Interleaved, Byte Order set to IBM PC.
In GIMP:
  1. File→Open the PNG. You will need to do this one page at a time.
  2. Use the Crop Tool (third row, second from the right, looks like a knife blade) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
  3. Image→Scale Image. Set the units of measurement, in the pull down menu next to Height, to millimeters. If the Width is over 173.5mm, type 173.5 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures) and hit Tab. The new Height of the figure will appear, scaled proportionately to the change in Width. The Width cannot be below 83.0mm, and the height cannot be more than 233.5mm. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
  4. File→Save As. Click the + sign next to "Select File Type (By Extension)". From the menu that appears, select TIFF. Click Save. Set Compression set to LZW. If you're prompted about layers in the file, select Flatten Image.

Macintosh OS X and PowerPoint 2008:

Step I: Convert PowerPoint File to PNG or PDF
  1. Go to PowerPoint Preferences. Under the Save tab, at the bottom, set Advanced Resolution Settings to 1600 DPI.
  2. File → Save As. In the Format pull-down menu, select either PNG or PDF. Save. Your PNG will be oversize at 72ppi, but will resize properly to 300ppi in Photoshop or GIMP. Your PDF will be the exact size of your PowerPoint slide at 300ppi. All other formats save as 72ppi no matter what you set in Preferences.
Step II: Convert Individual Files to TIFFs
In Photoshop:
  1. File→Open the PNG or PDF.
  2. Use the Crop Tool (fifth from the top of the toolbar) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
  3. Layer→Flatten Image
  4. If you opened a PNG, go Image→Image Size. Uncheck the Resample Image checkbox. If the Width is over 17.35cm, type 17.35 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures). The Resolution will go up automatically as the Width decreases. If the resolution does not hit 300 when you make the Width 17.35, type 300 in Resolution and as long as Width doesn't go below 8.3cm, everything is fine. Also, the height cannot be more than 23.35. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
  5. If you opened a PDF, go Image→Image Size and check to make sure the PDF is within our dimension limits. Resize it down to fit within these limits if need be.
  6. File→Save As. Save as TIFF, Image Compression set to LZW, Pixel Order set to Interleaved, Byte Order set to IBM PC.
In GIMP:
  1. File→Open the PNG or PDF. You will need to do this one page at a time.
  2. Use the Crop Tool (third row, second from the right, looks like a knife blade) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
  3. If you opened a PNG, go Image→Scale Image. Set the units of measurement, in the pull down menu next to Height, to millimeters. If the Width is over 173.5mm, type 173.5 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures) and hit Tab. The new Height of the figure will appear, scaled proportionately to the change in Width. The Width cannot be below 83.0mm, and the height cannot be more than 233.5mm. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
  4. If you opened a PDF, go Image→Scale Image and check to make sure the PDF is within our dimension limits. Resize it down to fit within these limits if need be.
  5. File→Save As. Click the + sign next to "Select File Type (By Extension)". From the menu that appears, select TIFF. Click Save. Set Compression set to LZW. If you're prompted about layers in the file, select Flatten Image.

OpenOffice (any operating system):

The above procedures work equally well in OpenOffice as they do in Microsoft Office.

Convert Excel or Word Files to High-Resolution TIFFs

Windows 98, XP, Vista and Excel/Word 2003 or 2007:

Step I: Convert Excel/Word File to PDF
There are two possible ways to create PDFs from Excel/Word files: use the Adobe PDF menu in some versions of Excel/Word, or create a PDF via the Print command.
  1. Open your file in Excel/Word. From the Adobe PDF menu, select Change Conversion Settings. The PDFMaker Settings dialog displays.
  2. From the Conversion settings dropdown menu, select Press Quality. Uncheck View Adobe PDF result. Click OK.
  3. From the Adobe PDF menu, select Convert to Adobe PDF. You will be asked to save the PDF file to a location of your choosing.
  4. Click OK.
– OR -
  1. Open your file in Excel/Word.
  2. Select Print from the File dropdown menu.
  3. Select the Adobe PDF (or similar driver) in the Printer Name window.
  4. Click Properties. Change the Default Settings pull-down to Press Quality. Uncheck the "View Adobe PDF results" box if you don't want Acrobat to launch.
  5. Click OK, then click OK. Pick where the PDF will be created, and click Save.
Step II: Convert Individual PDF Files to TIFFs
In Photoshop:
  1. File→Open the PDF. You will need to do this one page at a time. Make sure you're importing it at 300ppi, RGB.
  2. Use the Crop Tool (fifth from the top of the toolbar) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
  3. Layer→Flatten Image
  4. Image→Image Size. Uncheck the Resample Image checkbox. If the Width is over 17.35cm, type 17.35 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures). The Resolution will go up automatically as the Width decreases. If the resolution does not hit 300 when you make the Width 17.35, type 300 in Resolution and as long as Width doesn't go below 8.3cm, everything is fine. Also, the height cannot be more than 23.35. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
  5. File→Save As. Save as TIFF, Image Compression set to LZW, Pixel Order set to Interleaved, Byte Order set to IBM PC.
In GIMP:
  1. File→Open the PDF. You will need to do this one page at a time. Open pages as Images at 300ppi. Click Import.
  2. Use the Crop Tool (third row, second from the right, looks like a knife blade) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
  3. Image→Scale Image. Set the units of measurement, in the pull down menu next to Height, to millimeters. If the Width is over 173.5mm, type 173.5 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures) and hit Tab. The new Height of the figure will appear, scaled proportionately to the change in Width. The Width cannot be below 83.0mm, and the height cannot be more than 233.5mm. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
  4. File→Save As. Click the + sign next to "Select File Type (By Extension)". From the menu that appears, select TIFF. Click Save. Set Compression set to LZW. If you're prompted about layers in the file, select Flatten Image.
In Acrobat Pro:
  1. File→Open the PDF
  2. If necessary, go Document→Rotate Pages to rotate the document to a horizontal orientation.
  3. File→Save As. In the "Save as type" pull-down menu, select TIFF.
  4. Click the Settings button on the right-hand side of the Save As dialog box. In the top third, under "File Settings", both Grayscale and Color should be set to LZW. In the bottom third, "Conversion," set Colorspace to Color:RGB, and Resolution to 300ppi. Click OK. Click Save.
Note: PDFs converted to TIFFs in this manner should still be opened in Photoshop or GIMP to crop excess white space, and make sure the figure falls within our maximums and minimums.

Macintosh OS X and Excel/Word 2004:

Step I: Convert Excel/Word File to PDF
  1. File → Print.
  2. Click on the PDF button in the lower left corner of the dialog box. Select Save As PDF.
  3. Step II: Convert Individual PDF Files to TIFFs
    In Photoshop:
    1. File→Open the PDF. You will need to do this one page at a time. Make sure you're importing it at 300ppi, RGB.
    2. Use the Crop Tool (fifth from the top of the toolbar) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
    3. Layer→Flatten Image
    4. Image→Image Size. Uncheck the Resample Image checkbox. If the Width is over 17.35cm, type 17.35 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures). The Resolution will go up automatically as the Width decreases. If the resolution does not hit 300 when you make the Width 17.35, type 300 in Resolution and as long as Width doesn't go below 8.3cm, everything is fine. Also, the height cannot be more than 23.35. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
    5. File→Save As. Save as TIFF, Image Compression set to LZW, Pixel Order set to Interleaved, Byte Order set to IBM PC.
    In GIMP:
    1. File→Open the PDF. You will need to do this one page at a time. Open pages as Images at 300ppi. Click Import.
    2. Use the Crop Tool (third row, second from the right, looks like a knife blade) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
    3. Image→Scale Image. Set the units of measurement, in the pull down menu next to Height, to millimeters. If the Width is over 173.5mm, type 173.5 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures) and hit Tab. The new Height of the figure will appear, scaled proportionately to the change in Width. The Width cannot be below 83.0mm, and the height cannot be more than 233.5mm. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
    4. File→Save As. Click the + sign next to "Select File Type (By Extension)". From the menu that appears, select TIFF. Click Save. Set Compression set to LZW. If you're prompted about layers in the file, select Flatten Image.
    In Acrobat Pro:
    1. File→Open the PDF
    2. If necessary, go Document→Rotate Pages to rotate the document to a horizontal orientation.
    3. File→Save As. In the "Save as type" pull-down menu, select TIFF.
    4. Click the Settings button on the right-hand side of the Save As dialog box. In the top third, under "File Settings", both Grayscale and Color should be set to LZW. In the bottom third, "Conversion," set Colorspace to Color:RGB, and Resolution to 300ppi. Click OK. Click Save.
    Note: PDFs converted to TIFFs in this manner should still be opened in Photoshop or GIMP to crop excess white space, and make sure the figure falls within our maximums and minimums.

    OpenOffice (any operating system):

    The above procedures work equally well in OpenOffice as they do in Microsoft Office.

    Embed Fonts in EPS Files

    Always embed fonts or create outlines when creating EPS files. If your figures require special symbols or Greek characters the text may not reproduce properly unless you embed your fonts or create outlines of the text. See the Convert Text to Outlines below for more information.
    To embed fonts using Adobe Illustrator, open the EPS file. From the File Menu, select Save As. In the Save As dialog box, make sure that the Embed Fonts option is selected and click OK.

    Convert Text to Outlines

    When you convert text to outlines, the text is converted to a series of lines and fills. The reference to the font that was used to create the text is no longer present. This process makes it unnecessary for PLOS production department to have the original font used to create the figure text. This is to ensure that your figures published as you intended.
    Example of text that has not been converted to outlines.
    Example of text that has been converted to outlines. Notice that every character is outlined.
    You can use Adobe Illustrator to convert text to outlines by selecting the text you want to convert. Then from the Type menu, select Create Outlines (Shift + Control + O on PC, and Shift + Command + O on Mac).
    If you do not convert text to outlines, when your figure is opened during the production process any text in a non-standard font will automatically be substituted for default font. This can cause the text in the figure to render incorrectly.
    Caution: You will not be able to change your text after it has been converted to outlines so make sure it is correct before converting.

    Convert Other File Types to TIFF

    Convert PDF to TIFF using Photoshop

    1. Open the PDF file in Photoshop and select the page of the PDF that contains the figures to save as TIFF.
    2. From the File menu, select Save As to open the Save As dialog box.
    3. In the Save As dialog box, select TIFF from the Format dropdown list.
    4. When the TIFF Options dialog box displays, make sure to check the LZW compression checkbox.
    5. Click OK.

    Convert EPS, JPG, GIF, or Other File Types to TIFF using Photoshop

    1. Open the figure file in Photoshop.
    2. From the File menu, select Save As to open the Save As dialog box.
    3. In the Save As dialog box, select TIFF from the Format drop down list.
    4. When the TIFF Options dialog box displays, make sure to check the LZW compression checkbox.
    5. Click OK.
    Note: Do not use the "optimize for web" wizard for any figures. Some programs may down sample your images to low resolution.

    Convert PDF to TIFF using Adobe Illustrator

    1. Open the PDF file in Adobe Illustrator, select the PDF page to export and click OK.
    2. From the File menu, select Export to display the Export dialog box.
    3. From the Export dialog box, select TIFF from the Save as Type drop down list and click OK.
    4. When the TIFF Options dialog displays, select LZW compression.
    5. Click OK to complete the process.

    Convert EPS to TIFF using Illustrator

    1. Open the EPS file in Adobe Illustrator.
    2. From the File menu, select Export to display the Export dialog box.
    3. From the Export dialog box, select TIFF from the Save as Type drop down list and click OK.
    4. When the TIFF Options dialog displays, select LZW compression.
    5. Click OK to complete the process.

    Reduce TIFF File Size with LZW Compression

    PLOS has a strict 10 MB figure file limit. To reduce the size of your figure, open your TIFF files in Photoshop or GIMP.
    In Photoshop:
    1. File→Save As.
    2. Save as TIFF, Image Compression set to LZW, Pixel Order set to Interleaved, Byte Order set to IBM PC.
    In GIMP:
    1. File→Save As.
    2. Click the + sign next to Select File Type (By Extension).
    3. From the menu that appears, select TIFF. Click Save.
    4. Set Compression to LZW.
    5. If you're prompted about layers in the file, select Flatten Image.

    Locate the Resolution Information in a TIFF File

    You can locate the resolution of a figure file using Adobe Photoshop, Windows Explorer, or GIMP.

    Photoshop

    To find the resolution of a figure using Photoshop, first open the file. Then from the Image menu, select Image Size. The Image Size dialog box will open displaying the figure dimensions, document size and resolution. You can decrease the size of a file, but you should not increase the resolution and/or dimensions of a file to meet the journals requirements. Increasing the file sizes manually may result in poor quality figures.

    Windows Explorer

    To check the resolution of a figure file using Windows Explorer, locate and select the file. Right-click and select Properties. In the Properties dialog box, select the Summary Tab. If you do not see the properties of the figures, click Advanced. This will display all of the properties associated with the selected figure. Look at the Horizontal Resolution and Vertical Resolution to determine the figure resolution.

    GIMP

    To find the resolution of a figure using GIMP, first open the file. Then from the Image menu, select Scale Image. The Scale Image dialog box will open displaying the figure dimensions and resolution. You can decrease the size of a file, but you should not increase the resolution and/or dimensions of a file to meet the journals requirements. Increasing the file sizes manually may result in poor quality figures.

    Add Borders Using ImageMagick

    To add a 2-pixel white border around your Figures using ImageMagick command line tools:
    "mogrify -mattecolor white -frame 2x2 FILE.tif"
    To do it to a group of images:
    "mogrify -mattecolor white -frame 2x2 *.tif"

    Export High Resolution Images from Matlab

    Knowing the target size of your image in inches and ppi, first convert the number of rows and columns in the image. 4.86 inches by 9.19 inches (a 1.5-column figure at maximum height) at 300ppi corresponds to 1458 pixels by 2757 pixels. Modify your image to be 1458 by 2757. (Resize it, crop it, compute it differently, etc.) Then save your 1458 by 2757 image to a TIFF file, specifying 300 as the resolution:
    imwrite(my_image, 'figure_10_a.tif', 'Resolution', 300);

    function writeFig300ppi(figNo, fileName)
    %make the backgroung white
    set(figNo,’color’,'w’);
    f=getframe(figNo);
    colormap(f.colormap);
    imwrite(f.cdata, fileName, ‘Resolution’, 300);

    Export High Resolution Images from PyMol

    To get a 300 ppi PNG file for a 4.92 inch by 9.25 inch image:
    Ray-traced:
    ray 1458,2757
    png hires_ray.pdb, ppi=300
    OpenGL:
    draw 1458,2757
    png hires_ogl.pdb, ppi=300

    Enable the use of Arial in R

    First, convert the Arial .ttf files to afm:
    ttf2afm /usr/share/fonts/msttcorefonts/arial.ttf > ~/arial.afm
    ttf2afm /usr/share/fonts/msttcorefonts/ariali.ttf > ~/ariali.afm
    ttf2afm /usr/share/fonts/msttcorefonts/arialbd.ttf > ~/arialbd.afm
    ttf2afm /usr/share/fonts/msttcorefonts/arialbi.ttf > ~/arialbi.afm
    and then do the following in R:
    postscript(file="try.ps", horizontal=F,
    onefile=F,
    width=4, height=4,
    family=c("/home/stephen/arial.afm",
    "/home/stephen/arialbd.afm",
    "/home/stephen/ariali.afm",
    "/home/stephen/arialbi.afm"),
    pointsize=12)
    hist(rnorm(100))
    dev.off()

    Convert SigmaPlot Files to High Resolution TIFFs

    Step I: Applying PLOS settings to a graph
    To create a graph that is PLOS compatible, perform the following steps:
    1. First create your graph, and save it in SigmaPlot format.
    2. From the Tools menu select Options. In the dialogue box that appears, click on the Page tab. Set the Units to Millimeters (mm) and make sure the Graph objects resize with graph option is not ticked. Click OK.
    3. From the File menu select Page Setup. In the dialogue box that appears, click on the Margins tab. Set all the margins to 0.0mm, then click Apply.
    4. Now click on the Page Size tab. Set the Width to 83.5mm (or 173.5mm if double column width) and the Height to 233.5mm. Click OK.
    5. Set the font size of all text to 8 pt, and the width of all lines to 0.2mm (consult the SigmaPlot Help files for more details if necessary).
    6. Resize your graph to fit within and make full use of the page width available.
    Step II: Saving an image in PDF format
    This is the prefered output format when using SigmaPlot. To make sure your image is saved in a PLOS-compatible format, perform the following steps:
    1. From the File menu in SigmaPlot, select Print. In the Print dialogue box that appears, select Adobe PDF as the printer. Click on Properties.
    2. Change the Default Settings pull-down to Press Quality. Uncheck the View Adobe PDF results box if you don't want Acrobat to launch.
    3. Click OK, then click OK. Pick where the PDF will be created, and click Save.
    The PDF can then be processed in Photoshop, GIMP, or Acrobat Pro.
    In Photoshop:
    1. File→Open the PDF. You will need to do this one page at a time. Make sure you're importing it at 300ppi, RGB.
    2. Use the Crop Tool (fifth from the top of the toolbar) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
    3. Layer→Flatten Image
    4. Image→Image Size. Uncheck the Resample Image checkbox. If the Width is over 17.35cm, type 17.35 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures). The Resolution will go up automatically as the Width decreases. If the resolution does not hit 300 when you make the Width 17.35, type 300 in Resolution and as long as Width doesn't go below 8.3cm, everything is fine. Also, the height cannot be more than 23.35. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
    5. File→Save As. Save as TIFF, Image Compression set to LZW, Pixel Order set to Interleaved, Byte Order set to IBM PC.
    In GIMP:
    1. File→Open the PDF. You will need to do this one page at a time. Open pages as Images at 300ppi. Click Import.
    2. Use the Crop Tool (third row, second from the right, looks like a knife blade) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
    3. Image→Scale Image. Set the units of measurement, in the pull down menu next to Height, to millimeters. If the Width is over 173.5mm, type 173.5 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures) and hit Tab. The new Height of the figure will appear, scaled proportionately to the change in Width. The Width cannot be below 83.0mm, and the height cannot be more than 233.5mm. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
    4. 4.File→Save As. Click the + sign next to Select File Type (By Extension). From the menu that appears, select TIFF. Click Save. Set Compression set to LZW. If you're prompted about layers in the file, select Flatten Image.
    In Acrobat Pro:
    1. File→Open the PDF
    2. If necessary, go Document→Rotate Pages to rotate the document to a horizontal orientation.
    3. File→Save As. In the Save as type pull-down menu, select TIFF.
    4. Click the Settings button on the right-hand side of the Save As dialog box. In the top third, under File Settings, both Grayscale and Color should be set to LZW. In the bottom third, Conversion, set Colorspace to Color:RGB, and Resolution to 300ppi. Click OK. Click Save.
    Step III: Saving an image in TIF format
    If PDF output from SigmaPlot proves unsatisfactory, then save in TIF format. To make sure your image is saved in a PLOS-compatible format, perform the following steps:
    1. From the File menu select Export....
    2. In the Export File dialogue box that appears, set the Save as type: pull-down menu to TIFF RGB Compressed (.tif), then enter a logical file name (e.g. figure1.tif). Click Export.
    3. In the dialogue box which appears next, set the Final figure ppi: to 300 and the Color depth: to either Monochrome (for black and white images) or 24-bit (for color images). Click OK.
    4. The file produced by steps 1 to 3 will be large (approximately 33 cm wide) and low resolution (150 pixels/inch). It can be used as it is, but if you have access to a graphics package such as Adobe Photoshop or GIMP you can tidy up the format.
    In Photoshop:
    1. File→Open the TIFF.
    2. Use the Crop Tool (fifth from the top of the toolbar) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
    3. Image→Image Size. Uncheck the Resample Image checkbox. If the Width is over 17.35cm, type 17.35 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures). The Resolution will go up automatically as the Width decreases. If the resolution does not hit 300 when you make the Width 17.35, type 300 in Resolution and as long as Width doesn't go below 8.3cm, everything is fine. Also, the height cannot be more than 23.35. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
    4. File→Save As. Save as TIFF, Image Compression set to LZW, Pixel Order set to Interleaved, Byte Order set to IBM PC.
    In GIMP:
    1. File→Open the Tiff.
    2. Use the Crop Tool (third row, second from the right, looks like a knife blade) to select an area close to the borders of your image. Hit Enter to apply the crop.
    3. Image→Scale Image. Set the units of measurement, in the pull down menu next to Height, to millimeters. If the Width is over 173.5mm, type 173.5 in the Width box (17.35cm is our maximum allowable width for figures) and hit Tab. The new Height of the figure will appear, scaled proportionately to the change in Width. The Width cannot be below 83.0mm, and the height cannot be more than 233.5mm. If the Height and Width are within these prescribed limits, no adjustment to your figure size needs to be made.
    4. File→Save As. Click the + sign next to Select File Type (By Extension). From the menu that appears, select TIFF. Click Save. Set Compression set to LZW. If you're prompted about layers in the file, select Flatten Image.

    Export from Stata

    Stata does everything at screen resolution (72ppi). So if you want to have a final figure that is 300ppi, and (for example) 10cm square, you would divide the target resolution (300) by the output resolution (72), and multiply the target dimensions by the quotient to get the dimensions you should export your figure at. Dividing 300 by 72 gives you a quotient of 4.16, so a 41.6cm (4.16 multiplied by 10) square image at 72ppi could be resized to 10cm square at 300ppi in an application such as Photoshop or GIMP (www.gimp.org) without any loss of image quality. Be sure to save your TIFF with LZW compression turned on. Or save as a vector EPS.

    Exporting a High Resolution TIFF Using GeneSpring

    PDF Manual Instructions began at page 84. To paraphrase, see Figure 4.2. Replace the 72 for "image resolution" with 300. Export As: This will export the current view as an Image, an HTML file or the values as a text, if appropriate. See Figure 4.18 Export as Image: This will pop-up a dialog to export the view as an image. This functionality allows the user to export a very high quality image. You can specify any size of the image, as well as the resolution of the image by specifying the required dots per inch (dpi) for the image. Images can be exported in various formats. Currently supported formats include png, jpg, jpeg, bmp or tiff. Finally, images of very large size and resolution can be printed in the tiff format. Very large images will be broken down into tiles and recombined after all the images pieces are written out. This ensures that memory is but built up in writing large images. If the pieces cannot be recombined, the individual pieces are written out and reported to the user. However, tiff files of any size can be recombined and written out with compression. The default dots per inch is set to 300 dpi and the default size if individual pieces for large images is set to 4 MB and tiff image without tiling enabled. These default parameters can be changed in the tools -!Options dialog under the Export as Image.

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